Although Bernheim did not explicitly talk about virtue, the article shows that his Lehrbuch nonetheless considers self-distanciation a matter of virtuous behavior, targeted at an aim that may not be fully realizable, but ought to be pursued with all possible vigor.
History[ edit ] Ancient understandings of authority trace back to Rome and draw later from Catholic Thomistic thought and other traditional understandings. In more modern terms, forms of authority include transitional authority exhibited in for example Cambodia public authority in the form of popular powerand, in more administrative terms, bureaucratic or managerial techniques.
In terms of bureaucratic governance, one limitation of the governmental agents of the executive branch, as outlined by George A. Krause, is that they are not as close to the popular will as elected representatives are.
As David Laitin defines, authority is a key concept to be defined in determining the range and role of political theory, science and inquiry. In recent years, however, authority in political contexts has been challenged or questioned.
There have been several contributions to the debate of political authority. In political philosophythe jurisdiction of political authority, the location of sovereigntythe balancing of freedom and authority,  and the requirements of political obligations have been core questions from the time of Plato and Aristotle to the present.
Most democratic societies are engaged in an ongoing discussion regarding the legitimate extent of the exercise of governmental authority. In the United Statesfor instance, there is a prevailing belief that the political system as instituted by the Founding Fathers should accord the populace as much freedom as reasonable, and that government should limit its authority accordingly, known as limited government.
In the discussion regarding the legitimacy of political authority, there are two beliefs at the respective ends of the spectrum. The first is the belief in the absolute freedom of the individual, otherwise known as political anarchism. The second is the belief that there must be a central authority in the form of a sovereign that claims ownership and control over the masses.
This belief is known as statism. Sovereignty, in modern terms, can refer either to the adherence to a form of sovereign rule or the individual sovereignty, or autonomy, of a nation-state. The argument for political anarchy and anti-statism is made by Michael Huemer in his book The Problem of Political Authority.
Sociology[ edit ] Since the emergence of the social sciencesauthority has become a subject of research in a variety of empirical settings: The definition of authority in contemporary social science remains a matter of debate.
Max Weber in his essay " Politics as a Vocation " divided legitimate authority into three types. This was because, as Abraham Lincoln also declared, "No man is good enough to govern another man, without that other's consent.Why Historical Distance is not a Problem.
MARK BEVIR. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), This essay argues that concerns about historical distance arose along with modernist historicism, and they disappear with postfoundationalism.
Media / Political Bias. There is no such thing as an objective point of view. No matter how much we may try to ignore it, human communication always takes place in a context, through a medium, and among individuals and groups who are situated historically, politically, economically, and socially.
And the idea of legitimate authority as an authority that has a right to rule over subjects who owe obedience to the authority and that has a right not to be interfered with by foreigners is surely an importantly distinct and perhaps ideal type of authority, which is rarely implemented.
The question that arises for a democratic theory of. Was World War Ii a Legitimate War?
in the Context of Just War Theory. of moral rule-book from which legitimate instances of the use of force can be read off whenever needed.2 That said this essay aims to investigate and legitimate World War II by examining jus ad bellum's predominant principles – just cause, rightful authority and .
Authority derives from the Latin word auctoritas and is a concept used to indicate the right to exercise power, Max Weber in his essay "Politics as a Vocation" () divided legitimate authority into three types.
About the Text of the printed book. The text of William Kingdon Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief” is based upon the first edition of Lectures and Essays, Macmillan and Co., , edited by Leslie Stephen and Frederick caninariojana.com text of William James’ “The Will to Believe” is based upon the first edition of The Will to Believe and other essays in popular philosophy, Longmans.