Margaret's Hospital in the Dorchester section of BostonMassachusetts. John asked to be the newborn's godfather, a request his parents honored, though they did not agree to his request to name the baby George Washington Kennedy the newborn was born on President George Washington 's th birthday and instead named him after their father's assistant. James's in London, England.
Classification of Psycho Physiological Disorders Article shared by: Psycho physiological disorder is also popularly known as psychosomatic disorder! It can be classified as follows: The term psychosomatic was coined by Heinroth It was introduced with the study of the effect of emotion on the various body organs.
However, the American Psychiatric Association prefers the term psycho physiological while referring to specific disorders and psychosomatics for the general approach to medicine in which physical, psychological and socio-cultural factors are considered.
The term psycho physiologic itself emphasises the fact that we are talking about disorders caused and maintained mainly by psychological and emotional factors rather than by organised causes. In psycho physiologic dysfunction the psychological disorders or difficulties are expressed through some physiological pathology.
Experiments by Cannon and Bard in the early part of the 20th century on the effect of emotion on bodily changes stimulated large number of researches which brought about radical change in the discipline of psycho physiologic medicine. Freud also believed that the pent up psychic energy does find its expression in physiological dysfunction.
According to Alexander each type of psychosomatic disorder may be connected with specific types of stress. He viewed for instance, Peptic ulcer associated with the frustration of love need and the need for protection.
Frustration of these needs he explained caused anger and anxiety which stimulated secretion of acids in the stomach. This leads to peptic ulcers. In Russia, based on pavlovian principles, studies on psychosomatic disorder were conducted.
These studies were more objective and had an experimental basis. To put it differently, in psychosomatic disorder, psychological life of an individual frequently influences his physical health. In fact the symptoms, the course and even the outcome of the physical disorders involve the interaction of physiological, psychological and social factors.
They are always accompanied by emotional reactions which bring about pathological changes. There are plenty of evidences to show that in different physiological diseases psychological factors play a major role. In the psycho physiological disorder there is a genuine physical disease which brings in physical dysfunction.
Psychological and physiological factors are so related that which one is more urgent, is difficult to say. For example, in anxiety, the psychological and physiological factors are embedded in such a way that it is difficult to segregate their influence. According to DSM IIIR the diagnostic criteria for psychosomatic disorder is psychologically meaningful environmental stimuli that are significantly and temporarily related to the initiation of a physical disorder.
As an example, this may be a demonstrable organic pathology like rhematoid arthritis or a known physiological process like migraine headache. Psychologically meaningful environmental stimuli are temporarily related to the initiation or exacerbation of a specific physical condition or disorder.
The physical condition involves either demonstrable organic pathology such as rheumatoid arthritis or a known physiological process like migraine headache. Although very few psychosomatic disordered persons take admission in hospitals, yet due to their life threatening consequences, these disorders require special attention.
Psychologists have opined that if emotion or stress is the sole cause of psychosomatic disorder, then why different individuals choose different organ systems as sites for psychosomatic disorders instead of one particular organ? Three different guesses have been made by researchers as to why a particular psychosomatic disorder might be chosen.
Specific psychosomatic disorders occur in the organ system that is weakest this weakness may have a genetic or environmental cause. For example, if the weakest organ in a person is his digestive system and he experiences continued emotional stress; he may suffer from peptic ulcer.
The second explanation suggests that there are differences in inherited patterns of response to stress that may predispose people to develop specific system breakdowns. For example, people who have dependence — independence conflict may be more prone to develop ulcers. Similarly, some people respond to stress situation with high blood pressure, whereas others may respond to the breakdown of the respiratory system in the form of asthma.
According to the third explanation neither weak organ systems nor inherited response patterns, but specific types of personality patterns are principal cause for the development of psychosomatic disorders.
In psycho physiological disorders, there are specific patterns of symptoms and the explanation and treatment for one type of psychosomatic disorder are usually not applicable to the other types.
The clinical picture of the psychosomatic disorders tends to be phasic i. The sequence of their appearance or disappearance seems to be related to the amount of tension the individual is expressing.
It is also interesting to note that there are marked differences between the sexes in the incidence of specific disorder.
For instance, ulcers are much more common among men than in women. Similarly, rheumatoid arthritis is much more common among women than in men.Home Articles The Varying Ethics of Plagiarism. Articles; The Varying Ethics of Plagiarism. By. Jonathan Bailey - April 25, Last month on Poynter, author and writing teacher Roy Peter Clark outlined 10 acts that, according to him, are commonly referred to as plagiarism but actually are not.
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Even though it isnt necessarily against the law, it is still a serious offense and can often lead to cases of copyright caninariojana.comrism is defined by caninariojana.com as an act or instance of . However, the American Psychiatric Association prefers the term psycho physiological while referring to specific disorders and psychosomatics for the general approach to medicine in which physical, psychological and socio-cultural factors are considered.
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