Because practitioners of the statistical analysis often address particular applied decision problems, methods developments is consequently motivated by the search to a better decision making under uncertainties.
The Ishango bone Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick.
Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi clay spheres, cones, etc.
The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented.
In a medieval European counting housea checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money. The ancient Greek -designed Antikythera mechanismdating between and BC, is the world's oldest analog computer.
The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J.
An online course in computer science is a class that introduces students to the principles of computers, including programming, abstraction, software engineering and web development. These and many other ideas serve as the building blocks that develop students’ understanding of computers and how to harness their potential. In recent years there has been an explosion of network data – that is, measu- ments that are either of or from a system conceptualized as a network – from se- ingly all corners of science. Although first proposed in , the term "computer science" appears in a article in Communications of the ACM, in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in , justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is Series Works: Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security.
It was discovered in in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikytherabetween Kythera and Creteand has been dated to c.
Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use.
A combination of the planisphere and dioptrathe astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy.
An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer   and gear -wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of IsfahanPersia in The sectora calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.
The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage.
A slide rule The slide rule was invented around —, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm.
It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials, circular and hyperbolic trigonometry and other functions.
Slide rules with special scales are still used for quick performance of routine calculations, such as the E6B circular slide rule used for time and distance calculations on light aircraft.
In the s, Pierre Jaquet-Droza Swiss watchmakerbuilt a mechanical doll automaton that could write holding a quill pen. By switching the number and order of its internal wheels different letters, and hence different messages, could be produced.
In effect, it could be mechanically "programmed" to read instructions.The purpose of this page is to provide resources in the rapidly growing area of computer-based statistical data analysis. This site provides a web-enhanced course on various topics in statistical data analysis, including SPSS and SAS program listings and introductory routines.
Topics include questionnaire design and survey sampling, forecasting techniques, computational tools and . Indecision and delays are the parents of failure. The site contains concepts and procedures widely used in business time-dependent decision making such as time series analysis for forecasting and other predictive techniques.
A SUCCESS STORY. This website accompanies The Science Coalition’s Sparking Economic Growth reports.
Each of the three reports highlights a different set of companies created from federally funded university research, totaling companies to date. An online course in computer science is a class that introduces students to the principles of computers, including programming, abstraction, software engineering and web development.
These and many other ideas serve as the building blocks that develop students’ understanding of computers and how to harness their potential. Although first proposed in , the term "computer science" appears in a article in Communications of the ACM, in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in , justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is Series Works: Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security.
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In this article we present a theoretical analysis of the nature and development of children's achievement task values.
Our approach builds on traditional expectancy-value theory and also on a model of achievement choice developed by Eccles and her colleagues.