In the years before the Civil War the Northern United States abounded with movements for social change. Reformers and reform organizations created new institutions such as prisons, asylums and orphanages, sought to transform the public schools, to eradicate social ills such as prostitution and drunkenness in order to strengthen family life, and to reform the system of support for the poor. Many of these reform agendas have modern counterparts in attempts to redefine welfare, attack drug addiction and spousal abuse, and contain crime. But the two most controversial reform movements, and the ones which struck deepest at the foundations of American society, were the campaigns for the abolition of slavery and the equality of women.
Background[ edit ] Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the super-natural. Pietism was sweeping German countries. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier.
The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert.
Postmillennialism Postmillennialism theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "millennium", which could entail either a literal 1, years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness.
Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism.
|History of Western civilization - Wikipedia||Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD|
|Origins of the Welfare State in America | Mises Institute||Introduction Standard theory views government as functional:|
|Who can edit:||Oaks, Quorum of the 12 Apostles.|
|The Second Great Awakening and Rise of Evangelicalism||Transformations in American economics, politics and intellectual culture found their parallel in a transformation of American religion in the decades following independence, as the United States underwent a widespread flowering of religious sentiment and unprecedented expansion of church membership known as the Second Great Awakening.|
George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. By the s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress.
Burned-over district In the early nineteenth century, western New York State was called the " burned-over district " because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional.
Revivalists' techniques were based on the camp meetingwith its Scottish Presbyterian roots. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains.
Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater in the South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folkand slaves were converted. Revival of In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings.
These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship.
The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events.
The revivals followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis of the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, restored by a sense of personal salvation. Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly.
The only way to be saved was by God's electing grace. The first informal camp meeting began there in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House. One year later, an even larger sacrament occasion was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky under Barton Stone, attracting perhaps as many as 20, people.English literature - The later Romantics: Shelley, Keats, and Byron: The poets of the next generation shared their predecessors’ passion for liberty (now set in a new perspective by the Napoleonic Wars) and were in a position to learn from their experiments.
Percy Bysshe Shelley in particular was deeply interested in politics, . Spens Report 'Secondary education with Special Reference to Grammar Schools and Technical High Schools' (). Cite This Article. Rothbard, Murray N. "Origins of the Welfare State in America." Journal of Libertarian Studies 12, No.
2 (): – Transcript of Changes in America from American Changes Religious views American Diversity American Identity Culture Economic Transormations Environment Politics Reform Slavery and Its Legacies The diversity of the American.
Pope Gregory the Great made himself in Italy a power stronger than emperor or exarch, and established a political influence which dominated the peninsula for centuries. From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Accounts of Religious Revivals in Many Parts of the United States from - Albany, New York, Albany, New York, Despite the author's obvious enthusiasm, it is a series of trite accounts of revivals, devoid of interesting historical detail.